Bowman XRF analyzers use X-ray fluorescence technology for material thickness and composition analysis. X-ray was discovered by German physicist Wilhelm Rontgen in 1895. He called the unknown light source that caused his film to expose “X-ray” and published his discovery with an X-ray image of his hand.
Today it’s known that X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation, with a frequency between ultraviolet and gamma rays. Most X-rays have a wavelength of from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, as shown in figure 1, with frequency arranged from low to high.

Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.
X-ray can also be defined as a particle (Photon), and is described using an energy unit eV. Energy unit and wavelength unit are interchangeable. Therefore, X-ray is both a wave and a particle. This is an important concept in understanding X-ray properties.
X-rays can be generated by Bremsstrahlung, which is the deflection of an electron or another charged particle. Inside an X-ray tube, electrons are accelerated to the target material. Upon impact, the kinetic energy of the electrons is transferred into X-rays and heat.
It’s interesting to note that the wave properties cannot explain the photoelectric effect. Albert Einstein and Max Planck proposed that light did not behave like a wave, but rather like discrete “packets” with a specific energy content. Years later, American chemist Gilbert Lewis named the light packets photons. But people remained skeptical about Einstein’s theory until 1923, when American physicist Arthur Compton discovered X-ray scattering. He bombarded graphite with X-rays and found that the scattering X-ray has less energy. The phenomenon was named Compton scattering, which is explained by the Einstein-Planck theory. During collision with an electron, a particle like an X-ray transfers part of its momentum to the electron, and as a result the X-ray is deflected in a different direction and emitted with less energy and a different wavelength.

Wilhelm Roentgen

1845 - 1923

While the Einstein-Planck theory explains Compton scatter, there is one problem. To possess momentum, a photon must have mass, because the definition of momentum in classical physics is mass times velocity. But a photon has no mass. The answer came from Einstein, who postulated that in the fundamental sense, energy and mass are equivalent and interchangeable. He formulated his concept into the famous relationship, E=MC2. Years later, Einstein received the Nobel physics prize for his photoelectric theory.

Gilbert N. Lewis

X-ray fluorescence is related to photoelectric interaction. When photoelectric interaction occurs, an electron is knocked from its orbit, creating a vacancy. Electrons from higher energy orbits can move to fill this vacancy. The energy difference between the two orbits is released as fluorescence X-rays, i.e. secondary X-rays. Fluorescence X-ray from each element has a signature energy, and is called characteristic X-ray.

Bowman XRF Advantages of the system 


Superior and leading-edge XRF systems


The high-resolution solid-state detector has good elemental resolution without the need for a secondary filter. The peak position remains stable for a long time without the need for frequent recalibration.

The tightly coupled geometry between the X-ray tube and the detector results in higher Available counts, shorter measurement times, lower detection limits, and higher accuracy.

Intuitive user interface


 The analytical data of the Bowman Coating Thickness Gauge is backed by powerful software that will have an intuitive user interface and be simple and user-friendly. Measurement data can be retrieved by batch number and reports can be generated at the touch of a button.
Users can create new applications and report formats without restrictions, all results are automatically saved to a computer database, and password protection can be set at all user levels

Bowman XRF Advantages of the system


Bowman XRF Coating Thickness Gauge
High-precision measurement and analysis can be performed from aluminum element 13 to uranium element 92

Note: The above is the measurable thickness range under typical measurement conditions, the measurable range of the specific application will vary depending on the measurement conditions, and the application report published by us shall prevail.

Application Consulting


We have years of experience in XRF technology application, a vast application instance library, and a comprehensive application testing and development laboratory. Contact us for application support at 400-8383-040,